The estimated population of Gaston in October 2014 was 11 554 298 people. The population of the capital, Nekane, exceeds 1 million (in addition to the metropolitan area, 2.3 million) and represents a large part of the population. Nekane is internationally known for its broad cultural offerings and high standard of living. The other most populous cities are Santa Inês, Antiqua, Niceto and Florián. About 97% of the gastonese population have Portuguese as their native language. The Districts of Castra Leuca and Loucira have an important minority who speaks Spanish, with about 35,000 speakers. The remaining inhabitants are of foreign descent, many of them coming from neighboring countries. Guest workers and their descendants, as well refugees from the Yugoslav wars and other conflicts, also form an important minority. Since 1984, the Gypsies are an ethnic minority officially recognized in Gaston. According to the census published by the Gastonese Institute of Geography and Statistics (Portuguese: Instituto Gastonês de Geografia e Estatística – IGGE) in 2010, there were a total of 984,726 foreign residents, of which 154,291 are from German-speaking regions – mostly from Germany, some from Switzerland and province Bolzano, Italy. Other groups are numerous Serbs (125,298), Turks (122,317), Croats (103,569), English speaking people (25,154), Albanians (24.64) and Poles (17 998). With less than 15 000 representatives are: 14,701 Hungarians, 11,216 Romanians, Arabs 7682, Slovenia 6802, 6832 Slovaks, Czechs 6706, Iranian 5956, 5671 Italian, 5456 Russian, 5228 French, 4947 Chinese, 4261 Spanish and 3502 Bulgarians. Other minorities have less than 3000 inhabitants. English is spoken by almost all residents of the country. Since 2003, some of the counties of Gaston presented tests for new citizens to prove their language ability, cultural knowledge and accordingly their ability to integrate into gastonese society.

Distribution of the population in Gaston – Census 2014